2010-01-14

叢林瑰寶:吳哥文明 The Jewel of Jungle: The Khmer Civilization

(2009年12月柬埔寨之旅)


感謝狂狷玫瑰福至心靈,贈予“叢林瑰寶”這首千古好詩。詩映眼簾,思緒不禁也穿梭古今,唏噓多少英雄往事呵。Thanks to my friend "rose du petit prince" for the following Chinese ancient poem that fits absolutely well to the Khmer mood.

臨江仙

明‧楊慎

滾滾長江東逝水
浪花淘盡英雄
是非成敗轉頭空
青山依舊在
幾度夕陽紅

白髮漁樵江渚上
慣看秋月春風
一壺濁酒喜相逢
古今多少事
都付笑談中


叢林瑰寶:吳哥文明 The Jewel of Jungle: The Khmer Civilization

亙古千年以前,北高棉的濕熱叢林裏人類文明崛起,一座座人類前所未有美麗而浩大雄偉的廟宇石殿平地而起。然後石殿主子突然神秘地消失了,巍然石殿的氣宇軒昂讓位給大自然叢林之手。

是誰在危機四伏的濕熱叢林,揮灑出一片曠世的傑作?
是誰竟然棄叢林瑰寶於不顧,任大自然無情恣意蹂躪?


二十年前和外子走過這一片石殿城郭,二十年來頻頻午夜夢廽歸兮。2009年12月揮別北國白雪暟暟的藝術之都,擕上貼心小犬與同外子重新踏上二十年前朝聖的路、、、

Thousand years ago, the Cambodian civilization arose, the beautiful and giant stone palaces, those have never been seen elswhere, were built up. And all of a sudden, the masters of these stone palaces disappeared, the splendour of the giant stone palaces yielded to the hands of the natural jungles.

Who were the people that built such incredible works of God in those dense and dangerous jungles?

And who were the people that abandoned the jewel of jungle and left it to the merciless devastation of the nature?

Twenty years ago wandering around these stone palaces with my husband
for twenty years they have been coming back to my dreams off and on...
Thus waving to the pure white snowy Capital of Art in December 2009 together with my dearly son and husband, we started our road of pilgrimage again 20 years later...

吳哥文明的形成 The Genesis of the civilization of Khmer Empire

吳哥王朝深受印度教的洗禮。數百年印度人乘船向東走到東南亞行商,每至夏天雨季大作,他們只好逗留當地,等待雨季過後啓航返回。數百個雨季的逗留造就了印度宗教、藝術、建築和文字的東傳。高棉、泰國和寮國文字都源自梵文。但是高棉人並沒有廣義地深入印度宗教,而只是祈求印度教神祉庇護國強民安。

Hundreds of years the Indian travelled back and forth eastwards to the Southeast Asia for trade by ship, they were held up because of the monsoon seasons. During the monsoon they had to stay as long as the weather allowed them to go home again. Hundreds of years detaining in the monsoon seasons in the Southeast Asia, the Indian religion, art, architecture and Sanskrit script were brought to this region. But the Cambodian have never deepened their beliefs into the Hinduism, they did only hang on to the Hinduism Gods for blessing their home and country.

取自網上:柬埔寨洞里薩湖示意圖 picture from Internet Tonle Sap River

任何一個古老文明的孵育必有得天獨厚的地利因導,大自然在此每年6月都會上演一個獨特的現象。來自喜馬拉雅山脈季風降雨和濕婆神(Shiva)的源生地崗仁波齊山(Kailash)上的冰河融水由北而南奔瀉而下,竄入湄公河的水量積累高過乾季4倍之多,水溢激流開始由南而北尋道倒灌,柬埔寨土地平坦,巨大水量流入,這樣造就了一個洞里薩湖(Tonlé Sap)。洞里薩湖的獨特有兩大原因:1)流量變化方向每年兩次,2)構成湖泊面積水量的急漲縮小劇烈。大雨在6月份開始下降,到9月將近三分之一柬埔寨的耕地面積為水覆蓋。這時洞里薩湖從原來的2600平方公里的面積增加到25,000平方公里十倍之寬,由二、三米的淺湖深度激增至14米的五倍之深。11月到5月進入乾季,湖水水量重新由北而南流囘金邊灌入湄公河。洪水所經之處為田野、森林和淺灘提供了一個魚類完美的溫床,水上房舍的人家於是隨著潮起潮落四處漂浮捕魚為生。如同尼羅河孵育了古埃及文明,洞里薩湖造就了東南亞獨一無二的吳哥王朝。

The gestation of any old civilization has got its advantages with particularly favourable natural conditions. The great nature performs an uniqe phenomenon every June in this region. The seasonal rain from the Himalaya and the melting glacier from the home of the God Shiva - Kailash pour down from the North to the South into Mekong River in such a speed and vast quantity that the water must seek its way anew and starts to flow backwards from the South to the North each year. Cambodia is a flat country that welcomes the exceeding river into its region and the Tonlé Sap Lake is being formed.

The Tonlé Sap is unusual for two reasons: 1) its flow changes direction twice a year, and 2) the portion that forms the lake expands and shrinks dramatically with the seasons. The monsoon season starts in June and lasts to September. Until then the one third of the rice fields in Cambodia is under water. At this time the area of Tonlé Sap Lake is enlarged tenfold and the depth is deepened fivefold.

From November to May the dry season beginns, the water of the Lake flows back via Phnom Penn into Mekong again. The flooding and flows irrigate the fields and forests. The floodplain provides a perfect breeding ground for fish.

The Nile breeds the ancient Eyptian Civilization, likewise does Tonlé Sap Lake to the Khmer Civilization.

取自網上:洞里薩湖 picture from Internet Tonlé Sap River

取自網上:洞里薩湖picture from Internet Tonlé Sap River

卡巴思濱水底浮雕Kbal Spean (供奉印度教和佛教Religion both Hinduism and Buddhism;Day3)


吳哥朝代飲水思源的感恩求庇心跡體現在卡巴思濱水底浮雕的藝術。一般人也稱之爲“林伽谷(the valley of a 1000 Lingas)”。

(維基網:林伽(Linga)呈勃起狀,以約尼(Yoni)為底座,約尼是女性生殖器像,象徵濕婆(Shiva)的妻子。印度教認為林伽代表生命,象徵生殖、創造的超自然神力,是宇宙之源和最高力量的象徵。印度史詩《羅摩衍那》記載濕婆與妻子做愛時,一次就達100年之久,中間從不間斷,精液噴洒成恆河,孕育了印度文明。
水底浮雕包括一系列卡巴思濱河的河床岩雕。圖案大致有3種:
1. 無數林伽整齊刻列在顛簸岩石的表面
2. 林伽和約尼設計
3.印度教各種神話主題,包括描寫神和動物

"When drinking water, think of its source" - a Chinese saying that reflects the thankfulness of the Khmer Dynasty exactly in the riverbed carving of Kbal Spean River. It is also called "the valley of a 1000 Lingas". Lingam represents the natural power of life, birth and creation and is the symbol of the highest power.

(From Chinese Wikipedia: In the Hindu mythology, the Linga symbolizes the God Shiva by a cylindrical stone rounded off at the top. And at the other end inserted in masonry or in the ground, but transfixing another horizontal and flat stone named Yoni that symbolizes the wife of the God Shiva. According to Indian mythology Rāmayana, when the God Shiva made love to his wife once and it was as long as 100 years without interruption. His sperms have become the Ganges River that bred the Indian Civilization.

The riverbed carving of Kbal Spean River contains 3 types:
1. numerous lingas carved on the uneven surface of the riverbed.
2. the design of linga and yoni
3. all themes of the Indian mythology describing gods and animals.

















清澈水底的千百林伽庇廕世世代代吳哥城源遠流長的水源供給。千年亙古藝術功力之精湛,雕刻工事之艱鉅,當可媲美現代人類的登月之擧。

吳哥王朝沒有任何文獻遺留下來。那個時候大多使用棕櫚葉記事,而當地氣候濕暖,文物易於腐朽,加上戰亂頻仍,國土變遷不定。除出土碑文外,文字記錄甚少。

這個遙遠失落的文明沉寂數百年,直到1914年才被歐洲重新發掘、、、

Thousands of lingas under the clear riverbed protect the source of water supply for the Khmer dynasties for hundreds of generation. The perfection of the art thousand year ago under an extremely difficult condition shows the achievement comparable to the moon-landing of human beings.

The Khmer Dynasty did not leave any literature to the world. Back then it was common to use the palm leaves for keeping records. Due to the humid climate the historical relics can get rotten easily. Besides, the never ending battles and turmoils made all historical relics vanished with the only exception of inscriptions.

The lost civilization for hundreds of years was not found until 1914 by the Europeans...

女王宮Banteay Srei (供奉Shiva濕婆神:印度教毀滅再生之神Religion Hinduism God Shiva;Day3)



1914年這座宮殿被一位法國人發掘,世人才注意到世界的這個角落。

André Malraux戴高樂政府的文化部長,1923年的他落魄浪蕩,起意竊取了宮殿裏的四座阿普莎拉仙女石雕(Apsaras),幸好沒多久就被發覺而歸還。

不似吳哥城大多數的廟宇宮殿,女王宮並不是一所皇室廟宇。它是國王羅貞陀羅跋摩二世(Rajendravarman II)賜給宰相Yajñavaraha暹粒河(Siem Reap River)北端一片地,宰相興土木建起這座女王宮。十世紀下半葉國王羅貞陀羅跋摩二世死前一年竣工。

In the year of 1914 Banteay Srei was discovered by a French, not until then has the world paid its attention to this corner.

A French named André Malraux was down and out back in 1923. When he came here, he stole four apsaras in the Palace. Fortunately it didn't take long to be caught and he returned the antiques. André Malraux became the Minister of Culture during the Charles de Gaulle Government.

Unlike the most temples and palaces in Angkor, Banteay Srei was not built by the Khmer King but by a premier minister, called Yajñavaraha whom the King Rajendravarman II granted a piece of land on the North of Siem Reap River. It was him who had the Banteay Srei built up. It was not completed until one year before the death of the King Rajendravarman II.



高棉建築藝術在此座宮殿達到巔峰,故而此宮殿被稱為“高棉藝術之瑰寶”。瑰寶的匠心獨具來自當時統治東南亞的最大勢力Khmer朝代。他們是石雕藝術巨人,拾取當地瑰紅砂石,一釐一寸地刻,雕刻出令人醉迷的各種花紋圖案,直到一塊塊巨岩璀璨成形,尋不得空白縫隙加以雕塑方才罷休。

The Khmer art of architecture has reached its peak at this point in time. Therefore, this palace is called "the jewel of the Khmer art". The ingenuity of the art came from the biggest overwhelming power, the Khmer Dynasty that controlled the whole region all over Southeast Asia. They were the giants of stone carving artists. They used the local pink-coloured sandstone and carved all kinds of beautiful patterns milimeters by milimeters. They did carve the whole stone so full that nothing can be added any longer. And the persisting pursuit of perfection in the stone carving art is well displayed here in Banteay Srei.









































除了女王宮之外,高棉王朝從第九到十四世紀,雕建了數百個美輪美奐而雄偉浩大的石殿石廟,堡壘防禦工事和神秘佛陀面相的城門無數 - 包括最浩大的秘密城郭小吳哥城(Angkor Wat)。

Apart from the Banteay Srei, from the 9th to the 14th century the Khmer Dynasty built up countless beautiful and great splendid stone temples and palaces, fortress and bastion as well as mystical 4-face towers and gates - including the secretive Angkor Wat.

蔣勳“吳哥之美”的一篇文 – 美麗的斑蒂絲蕾,指的就是女王宮。
他形容地真幽美:
[我坐著,忽然似乎記起什麼……
或許,我曾經是這裡的一名工匠,被分配到一塊不大的門楣上做細雕的工作。
我依照傳統的花樣打了底稿,細細描繪在石塊表面上。我無思無想,好幾個月只是做著磨平的工作,使還不平整的砂岩細如女子的皮膚,在日光下映照出淺淺粉紅的色澤。我無思無想,用手指頭輕輕撫觸那肌膚的瑩潤光滑,細如油脂,在我撫觸過的地方,都滲透出肉色的痕跡。那些描繪的墨線像肉體上用細針刺的紋身。我無思無想,不能確定那些細緻的紋身是在石塊上,或已是我自己身上再也擦拭不去的美麗痕跡了。


吳哥寺/小吳哥城 Angkor Wat(供奉Vishnu毗濕奴神,印度教的保護之神Religion Hinduism worshiping Vishnu the protecting god;Day1)

取自網上吳哥寺的鳥瞰圖picture from internet the bird's-eye view of Angkor Wat

吳哥城的護城河有兩個足球場面積之廣,城牆有兩英里之長,中央神墰塔頂高如巴黎的聖母院大教堂。它留給世人的震撼是建築藝術的尊貴和完美。環繞吳哥城廣大的深邃叢林之地,大珠小珠落玉盤似地滿是古老石殿廟宇,藝術石像和偉大的人造蓄水灌溉系統。在在證明這個遺失地平綫古老文明的偉大。

The moat of the Angkor Wat is as big as two football fields, its wall is two miles long and its roof is as high as Cathedral of Notre-Dame. The thrilling impressions about Angkor Wat that people would have show the divinity and absolute perfection of the art of architecture. In the vast and dense jungle around Angkor Wat there are numerous ancient temples and palaces, holy statues and an incredible water reservoir. All these prove the greatness of a lost ancient civilization.

從公元790到1327年將近五百四十年的高棉王朝,影響勢力頂峰至極是從1112 - 1150年蘇耶跋摩二世 (Suryavarman II)統治的時期,他就是吳哥城(Angkor Wat)的始建君主。小吳哥城 - 城如其名“Angkor 城Wat塔”,不僅僅輝煌宏偉,是全世界最龐大的一座宗教建築,它也堪稱吳哥王朝中最莊嚴尊貴的一座神廟宮殿。吳哥寺的建築充分體現印度教深遠的影響。因爲它是神祉之地,所以進入神龕的朝聖道路必定悠悠長長,輝煌寬廣極盡能事。

The Khmer Dynasty lasted from 790 to 1327 nearly 540 years long. Its most influential power was the realm of the King Suryavarman II. It was him who had the Angkor Wat built. Angkor Wat is exactly same as its name - "Angkor" means city and "Wat" means tower. It is not only splendid but also the largest religious building in the world. It is exemplary by been called the most devine and perfect building among all temples and palaces of Angkor. Angkor Wat's architecture shows the deep influences by the Hinduism. Because it is the residence of God, the road leading to the shrine must be as long and wide as possible.













過了朝聖大道進入神殿以後,沿路石廳供奉各種神靈,而真正中央塔頂的神龕卻微小之至。不似古羅馬或古埃及,千年以來至今不斷地廣大信徒來到這裡的神龕膜拜。

Afer passing through the causeway and entering into the temple, there are many small chambers for worshiping all kinds of gods. And the real shrine at the top of the central tower is rather as small as a living room. Unlike the shrine in the ancient Rome or Egypt, there are still many pilgers coming here to worship the god until today.











在首都金邊皇宮公園内“銀宮”後院置放了一個吳哥寺的小模型 a miniature of Angkor Wat located in the backyard of the Silver Palace of the Royal Palace in Phnom Penn

吳哥寺的格局是印度教義中大宇宙的小縮影。護城河象徵環繞大地的神話海洋,四面對稱中心軸的一列列長廊代表層巒山脈環繞神的家園 - 須彌山。石塔代表山峰,爬上塔頂中央神壇的石梯相當陡直,或許有意讓行者體會爬上一座真山所需的力度。

The architecture of the Angkor Wat is a miniature of the universe in the Indian mythology. The moat symbolizes the mythical oceans, the rows after rows of symmetrical corridors on the four sides of Angkor Wat symbolize the mountain ranges of the God's home - Mountain Meru. The stone towers symbolize the mountain peaks. The stone stairs leading to the shrine at the top is very steep, which might be the creator's intention to give visitors the feeling as if they would climb up a real mountain.

[摘錄自臺灣ankor.pktravel網:由於印度教的基本教義是以善惡得報為基礎的輪迴,他們認為善惡行為附著於個別存在的「阿特曼」(意為「我」)身上,而人類就在善惡中不斷地輪迴,反覆地死亡,所以只有把死亡切斷才是真正的解脫,而解脫的方法便是沐神之恩,與神結合為一。因此吳哥王會在生前決定死後與自己結合為一體的神,而忠實地祭祀祂,為祂建造寺院,目的就是希望死後解脫個別存在的阿特曼,而與神合為一體,成為真正的神。所以國王就是寺廟中所供奉的神之化身,因此「神王」信仰便是吳哥王朝中,諸王建造這些偉大建築的原因。]

















這裡擁有600多公尺朝代敍事的石壁浮雕和將近2000尊石雕阿普莎拉仙女(Apsara)。There are narrative bas-relief as long as 600 meters and nearly 2000 beautiful stone-carved apsaras here.

蘇耶跋摩二世在慶典正式開始前閑坐在自己的王位上 Suryavarman II sitting in his throne before the procession



跟Kuru族(北印度)作戰 Fight against the Kuru (nothern India)

小吳哥迴廊的壁雕精華以反時鐘方向包括西牆上抵抗北印度Kuru族的神話戰鬥,南牆刻畫蘇耶跋摩二世出征占婆國的浩大場面和天堂地獄的景象,一直到東牆石雕印度教的三大史詩之一的神話故事攪乳海(Churning of the Ocean of Milk)的故事。

The cream of the narrative bas-reliefs of the corridors starts counter-clockwise from the western wall showing the mythical battles against the northern Indian Kuru, those on the southern wall showing the battles against Cham led by Suryavarman II and the scenes in heaven and hell as well as the story of the Churning of the Ocean of Milk on the eastern wall.

88個天神中之一Vishnu毗濕奴神指揮眾神攪拌乳海churning of the milk ocean。[維基百科:攪乳海Churning of the Ocean of Milk傳說中,長生不死的甘露,埋藏在須彌山Mountain Meru下的乳海Ocean of Milk底下。阿修羅,神仙,和毗濕奴神Visnu,他們用曼陀羅山做攪棒,用納加之王當絞繩,聯合起來奮力攪乳海,最後成功地獲得了不死甘露。]

亙古以前在天光雲影之間悠游的阿普莎拉仙女在此隨處可見,表情豐富,倩影輕盈,姿態不一,髮式服飾多彩多姿。阿普莎拉仙女不僅僅活在石雕想像中,也見於傳統舞蹈。各村落最美麗的女子被選進王宮,傳授神秘的舞蹈動作表達神旨。來自南印度的傳統由是植根于東南亞傳統的古典舞蹈。而舞蹈動作也間接成了許多考古憑證。

The beautiful apsaras flying between the sky and clouds thousand years ago can be seen everywhere in Angkor Wat. Everyone has its own facial expression, every slim and graceful figure poses her lightness in different gestures. Everyone has different hair style and dresses. Apsaras do not only exist in the stony imagination, but expresses its spirit in the traditional Khmer dancing art. The most beautiful girls were chosen into the palace for learning the secretive dancing-movement that should express the will of God. The Southern Indian tradition was thus deep-rooted into the classical dancing culture of the Southeast Asia. And the dancing movements have become one of the archaeological methods as well.








西方考古學者非常訝異古吳哥王朝毫無文獻遺傳。唯一能一窺高棉王朝究竟的憑藉,是石殿内的石刻梵文記載和來自中國的文獻《真臘風土記》。

The western archaeologists were very astonished to establish that none of any literature of Khmer Dynasty exists. The only reliable sources of getting a glimpse into the Khmer Dynasty is the inscription in the stone palaces and the Chinese literature written by the diplomat (or rather a spy) in the Yuan Dynasty. His name was Zhou, Daguan.

此書作者是周達觀,時值元滅南宋之際。當時元朝正攻伐占城和安南,並入侵真臘(今柬埔寨),但因受地理及氣候所阻,並未成功。因此,元廷改用威迫方法,遣使說服真臘及鄰近小國自動歸附,所以他便成為使節團團員。一年後他回國便著《真臘風土記》,詳細記載當地都城王室與風土人情、行程及所取途徑,甚有地理學之紀錄價值。

吳哥寺乃是王朝寺廟,整座寺廟不尋常地面向西方的築法,令人猜測蘇耶跋摩二世 (Suryavarman II)經建城郭之時,就把吳哥寺作爲自己死後的葬儀祠廟。

Angkor Wat is the royal temple. The fact that the temple was unusually built towards the west direction leads to the speculation that the King Suryavarman II wanted to build his funeral temple from the very beginning.

偉大的吳哥王朝國王:闍耶跋摩七世 King of The Great Jayavarman VII)



自蘇耶跋摩二世 (Suryavarman II)之後戰爭接踵而至,占婆國(Cham,位于今越南中南部,在漢代記載是日南郡的象林縣)的侵略不斷。到了1177年甚至面臨之後整整四年君位虛空的内憂外患。吳哥城瀕臨命脈斷絕。

這時王子闍耶跋摩七世(Jayavarman VII)歸來,經過四年奮戰,他終於把占婆國的軍隊打敗驅盡。於1181年登基。歷史證明他是吳哥王朝人文建築最有建樹的一位君主。不似前世君主信奉印度教,他崇尚佛教。接下來的三十年,闍耶跋摩七世 (Jayavarman VII)著手進行前所未有宏偉浩大的都城建設。他在位年間大興土木,留給世界的正是千年不毀以巴戎寺為中心的大吳哥城(Angkor Thom)。他同時負責興建塔普倫寺Ta Prohm,普利坎寺Preah Khan和斑黛喀德寺Banteay Kdei, 還有數以百計的廟宇、醫院和膜拜堂等其他建築。

After the King Suryavarman II passed away, there were battles after battles. The invasion from the Cham was endless. The Khmer Dynasty faced internal revolt and foreign invasion as well as four leadershipless years. Angkor Wat was on the edge of a lifeline stop.

At this time the Prince Jayavarman VII returned home. After four years of bitter battles he won the battle against the Cham and was enthroned in 1811. He has proven to be the greatest King in the history concerning the architecture of human civilization. Unlike his ancestors worshiping the Hinduism, he advocated the Buddhism. The following 30 years he has embarked on a serie of urban construction which was rare in the history of mankind. During his realm among all greatest constructions, Jayavarman VII left the intact and splendid stone palace - Angkor Thom after thousand years of changes to the world which was based on the Bayon and later on extended to a great Angkor city.

He was also responsible for constructing Ta Prohm,Preah Khan and Banteay Kdei as well as hundreds of temples, hospitals, school and chapels as well as other buildings.



提供考古憑證的石刻梵文記載被譯成1200多篇譯文。許多是歌頌吳哥王朝先王的記載,其中有一段對闍耶跋摩七世褒獎過甚自喻為神的文字“所有科學、樂譜、藝術、著述、語言、舞蹈、歌唱和一切的一切的智慧,都體現在這位擁有創始者般睿智的國王身上,當神靈面對他時,不禁喟然:爲何在這位國王身上,我創造了一個自己的勁敵?”雖説阿諛有加,但這些石刻梵文也是吳哥王朝年代記事的唯一憑藉。

The archaeological proof of the inscribed Sanskrit was translated into over 1200 articles. Many of them are the praise about the Khmer kings. One of them praised the King Jayavarman VII in an overdone tone: "All the science, scores, arts, writings, languages, dancings and singings and all these wisdoms have embodied in this King who possesses the same wisdom and farsight as the creator. Facing him even the God has to sigh and think to himself, how come I creat a rival to myself on this King?"

大吳哥城 Angkor Thom(奉行佛教Religion Buddhism;Day2)





以巴戎寺(Bayon)為中心向外延伸成一個宇宙縮影的城市是高棉十七世紀最後一個朝代仍然沿用的首都。佔地9000平方米的大吳哥城是高棉王朝所建的最大城之一。1181年國王闍耶跋摩七世(Jayavarman VII)打敗占婆國收復首都後,開始著手進行一系列宏偉建築,以原有的結構如巴本宮(Baphuon) 和天宮(Phimeanakas)加築城牆和護城河,以及多座偉大廟宇包括他欽立的王朝祠廟巴戎寺(Bayon)坐鎮城市中央,重新立都。

Based on Bayon as center the Angkor Thom was extended outwards in a form of a miniature of the universe and remained the Capital of the last Khmer Dynasty in the 17 century. It covers 9000 sqare meters area and is the biggest city of the all Khmer buildings. After overthrowing the Cham and reconquering the capital, Jayavarman VII kept the original structure of Baphuon and Phimeanakas, added the walls and moat and embarked on a large contruction projects one after one. He gave the imperial order to name Bayon as the state temple that is situated right in the middle of the capital.



入都城門有五處,每座城門頂端以四面巨大石雕菩薩像(Bodhisattva)雕成,分別朝向天地四個方位。(在東北亞菩薩面相以女性慈悲呈現;離開了東北亞,菩薩就都是以男性面貌呈現了)。但是也有人猜測石雕菩薩像其實是闍耶跋摩七世的自我肖像。

The gate to the city has four huge faces of Bodhisattva toward 4 cardinal points. (Unlike in the other areas the faces of Bodhisattva in Northeast Asia are often shown in the female form). There are also the speculations that the face of Bodhisattva indicates the King Jayavarman VII himself.

巴戎寺 Bayon(奉行佛教Religion Buddism;Day2)













闍耶跋摩七世的王朝祠廟 - 巴戎寺,是世界上最不可思議且最宏偉的宗教建築。它錯綜複雜的建築結構和多樣性的神旨符號包羅萬象,融合古羅馬時期萬神廟、印度教膜拜和佛教崇尚的建築精神。很奇特的是,這座由一面面巨大石雕菩薩塔築成的石山,由地拔起順勢築成一座聳然石峰。有人說石雕菩薩塔原來共有49或是54座,今天聳立於石山上只剩37座。塔形大部分都是四面菩薩,但也有三面或二面菩薩像而成塔。

The state temple - Bayon of the King Jayavarman VII is the most incredible and at the same time the greatest religious construction ever built in the world. Its complex structure and the diverse symbols showing the gods' will are well-integrated in the architectural spirits of the Patheon in Rome, worship of Hinduism as well as advocation of Buddhism. Uniquely the stone mountain consists of hundres of Bodhisattva's faces arising from the plain ground in the jungle and is beautifully shaped into a mountain peak. Some people said that there were originally 49 or 54 Bodhisattva-towers, but today there are only 37 of them standing here. Most of the Bodhisattva-towers consist 4 faces, but there are also towers made of 3 or 2.











白天徜徉上百菩薩面相之中,一種難言的神秘幽情籠罩;到了夜晚,銀月瀉光輝映,卻情不自禁毛骨悚然。目光投射之處,全是洞悉玄機的菩薩面相,雖説雙頰微哂雙目微闔,但是那洞悉過去和了然未來的面面相覷,陡地好似令人無以遁形地逼視著、觀照著、、、

During the daytime being among all different Bodhisattva faces, a mysterious feeling hovers unexpectedly in the air. But try to be there in the night time under the silver moonlight, it can really give someone the creeps. Wherever you look at, there is nothing but Bodhisattva. Although each Bodhisattva smiles and has his eyes closed, the faces that seemingly understand throughly the past and the future are staring at one's soul so sternly that one just cannot escape...











當然,巴戎寺最精彩的是外牆的石壁浮雕(bas-reliefs)。特別是描述吳哥人抵抗占婆國的海上戰場的南牆浮雕,但最有意思的是戰爭敍事之間活裏活現的生活寫實,有市場買賣、公鷄鬥法、下棋閑情、嬰兒接生等等。

Of course, the most exciting thing is the bas-reliefs on the outer wall. Especially the narration about the battles of the Khmer against the Cham on the southern wall, but most of all are the narrative carvings about the lively real life apart from battles, there are market bargaining, cock fighting, chess playing and the baby delivering etc.

中國士兵 Chinese soldiers


吳哥士兵與占婆國士兵以大象為坐騎兩兵交接 The Khmer soldiers sitting on elephants fighting against the Cham

"總體而言吳哥男女的穿著一樣,在腰部牽繫上一條布巾,上胸袒露出乳白肌膚",周達觀的形容該只針對吳哥上流社會的女子。可想而知,普通村姑娘因爲耕田粗活一般皮膚較爲黝黑。"Generally speaking, the women, like the men, wear only a strip of cloth, bound round the waist, showing bare breasts of milky whiteness" Clearly, Zhou Daguan would be referring to the breasts of upper class women, as the skin of Khmer women living in the villages and working in the fields would have had much darker skin.


吳哥士兵出征打仗The Khmer soldiers go to battle




上排士兵是占婆國人,下排該是中國人。The upper row of soldiers is from Cham, the row below should be Chinese soldiers.


市場女販子正在秤斤兩,二位中國男子一旁評論著Market woman weighing goods while two Chinese men passing comments.


一位中國人淘米煮飯 A Chinese is washing rice.


鬪公鷄Cock Fighting


一位中國女子替人洗頭髮 A Chinese woman is washing someone's hair.










阿莎普拉仙女Apsara

塔普倫寺Ta Prohm(奉行佛教Religion Buddhism;Day1)

塔普倫寺Ta Prohm是闍耶跋摩七世時期三十年大興土木的第一座寺廟。格局跟同期的普利坎寺Preah Khan和斑黛喀德寺Banteay Kdei類似。塔普倫寺的完成後獻給闍耶跋摩七世的母親,而普利坎寺Preah Khan則是獻給了父親。塔普倫寺Ta Prohm原是侍佛寺廟,富裕一世,掌管三千多個部落村莊,雲集達官貴人上千。

這裡的“廟中樹”終于讓世人見識大自然反撲戰勝人類文明的古蹟廢墟。

Ta Prohm was the very first temple being built during those 30 years of contruction in the realm of Jayavarman VII. It has the same structure like Preah Khan and Banteay Kdei from the same period. Ta Prohm was dedicated to the mother of Jayavarman VII and Preah Khan was dedicated to his father. Ta Prohm was originally a buddhism temple that was very rich and had control over 3000 villages and there were more than 1000 administrative staffs living here.

The huge trees grown into the temples show how the nature attacks the ruins of human cilivilization in retaliation.















普利坎寺Preah Khan(奉行佛教Religion Buddhism;Day2)

獻給闍耶跋摩七世父親的寺廟普利坎寺Preah Khan,既有宗教也有教育的功能。曾經有1000名佛學師祖在此解惑授業,這裡曾經該是一所佛學大學。Preah Khan的意思是“神聖寶劍”,大吳哥城修建期,闍耶跋摩七世曾經暫時遷住於此。

Dedicated to Jayavarman VII's father, Preah Khan did not only have the religious importance but also the educational functions. There were more than 1000 high ranking monks living and teaching in this temple, it was supposed to be a kind of university of buddhism. The meaning of Preah Khan is "The holy sword". While Angkor Thom was under construction, Jayavarman VII came to reside here for a period of time.









在寺廟西邊,竟然見到與吳哥傳統建築大異其趣的圓柱形建築,這是吳哥王朝時代唯一僅有的一棟圓柱形建築,據説是13世紀加建的。

At the end of Preah Khan, one comes across a cylindrical building on the westside of the temple which is very far away from the classical Khmer architecture. This is the very only one piece of this kind during the entire Khmer Dynasty. It is said to be added to Preah Khan later in the 13th century.











普里盧寺Pre Rup(供奉Shiva濕婆神:印度教毀滅再生之神 Religion Hinduism and worshiping the God Shiva;Day3)

那天去了卡巴思濱水底浮雕和女王宮之後,本來準備續到巴肯寺Phnom Bakheng,無奈時間有限改去普里盧寺Pre Rup。當時恰好是夕陽無限好的黃昏時刻,一片土樓碉堡式的塔樓出現眼前,竟然像似海市蜃樓般金黃燦爛的金字塔。

We intended to go to Phnom Bakheng after having visited Kbal Spean and Banteay Srei. As it was already late for the day, we decided to go to the temple Pre Rup instead that was on the way back to our hotel. It was such a beautiful sunset moment and all of a sudden a golden mountain of fortress appeared in front of us. The colour of pyramide was so incredible golden, that it seemed to be a mirage in the jungle.



塔山上許多石刻假門,所以傳統上被誤認爲靈骨塔。它其實是羅貞陀羅跋摩二世 (Rajendravarman II)的王朝祠廟。在歷史上具有它的重要性,因爲那是十世紀下半葉經過一段長時期的政治騷亂遷都至島澤克Koh Ker後,又重新遷囘吳哥城後所建的第二座寺廟。東梅蓬寺East Mebon則是重新遷囘吳哥後建起的第一座寺廟。

Up on the towers there are many stone-carved false doors, therefore this temple was traditionally mistaken as a bone tower. As a matter of fact it was the royal temple of the King Rajendravarman II. The temple is important regarding the Khmer history. The Khmer capital was moved to Koh Ker in the 2nd half of 10th century after a long period of political turmoil, then the Angkor regained its status of being the Capital of Khmer Dynasty. Pre Rup was the 2nd temple being built after King's moving back to Angkor. The East Mebon Temple was the first one.





鬪象台Terrace of Elephants(奉行佛教Religion Buddhism;Day2)

鬼斧神工雕刻出來各種大象和迦樓羅綴飾著高2,5公尺,長300公尺的鬪象台,也是令人流連忘返的地方。在13世紀元朝使節周達觀的《真臘風土記》也有記載。

The extraordinary stone-carving elephants and the garudas beautifully decorate the 2,5 meters tall and 300 meters long Terrace of Elephants. It is a place that one can linger on for a long time with no thought of leaving. There are also records written in the book of the Chinese Diplomat in the Yuan Dynasty.







迦樓羅Garuda,按照《迦樓羅及諸天密言經》的說法,就是中國的大鵬金翅鳥,是印度教和佛教典籍中記載的一種神鳥。按照印度教的神話傳説,迦樓羅是Vishnu 毗濕奴印度教保護之神的坐騎。

Garuda is a large mythical bird or bird-like creature that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology. Garuda is, according to the Indian mythology, the vehicle of the protecting God Vishnu.




闍耶跋摩七世(Jayavarman VII)啓建,後來的吳哥王續建而成今日規模。據説鬪象台上曾是優秀大象的選拔場地。奪冠的大象才能進宮供吳哥國王坐騎用,故而定名鬪象台。這裡也是王朝慶典舉行或是吳哥國王迎接凱旋而歸的軍隊之地。

鬪象台的正對面是12座大小相同的石塔Prasats Suor Prat建於13世紀因陀羅跋摩二世 (Indravarman II)時期,中文被稱爲十二生肖塔。根據周達觀《真臘風土記》的記載,暗示這12座塔具有超自然神力,法力可以解決人世糾紛。可是吳哥人起“Suor Prat”為塔名,顧名思義這12座塔只是用來結綁繩索,圈成一個圓形表演台以舉行各種表演,取悅住在鬪象台正面後端皇宮的皇朝家族。

It is said that the form of the Terrace of Elephants as today we see it was built by the King Jayavarman VII and completed later by his successors. The name of the Terrace derives from the ancient activity of elephant fighting. Only the best elephants that won the fighting could be chosen for being the vehicle of the Khmer kings. Here on the Terrace the Khmer kings used to receive their army returning home after victory.

On the opposite side to the Terrace of Elephants, there are 12 towers that are of the same size. They were given name as "Prasats Suor Prat" by the Khmer and were built in the 13th century during the realm of the King Indravarman II. In Chinese they are called "12 Horoscope Tower". According to the book of Zhou Daguan, it is said that these 12 towers possess certain super-natural power that offered legal appeasement to conflicts. As a matter of fact, solely the name of "Suor Prat" explains the function of these towers. The towers were simply used as the conjunction poles for tightening ropes, in order to circle a round stage for entertainment. This was supposed to amuse the royal family that lived in the Royal Palace right behind the Terrace of Elephants.



癲王台Terrace of the Leper King(奉行佛教Religion Buddhism;Day2)

如同鬪象台,癲王台的啓建日也衆説紛紜。考古學者推測癲王台是由闍耶跋摩七世(Jayavarman VII)啓建,而反對佛教倡行印度教的闍耶跋摩八世 (Jayavarman VIII)續建完成。

Same like the Terrace of Elephants, the date that the Terrace of the Leper King being built is also unknown. The archaeologists speculated that the King Jayavarman VII started the construction and the King Jayavarman VIII, who abandoned the buddhism and readvocated the hinduism, brought it to completion.







毗鄰鬪象台的癲王台是由雙面牆壁構成。壁内雕刻印度教盛行的納加(Naga)多頭蛇王和眾多惡魔相。

[摘錄自維基百科:有關納加的傳說至今仍然是許多受印度文明影響的亞洲國家(如印度,尼泊爾,東南亞一些國家等)的傳統文化的一部分。在印度,納加被視為有靈性的生物,是泉水、井水和河流的保護神。它們能夠造雨(這點與中國的龍相似),因而帶來豐收;但是也會帶來如洪水和乾旱等災害,代表性的故事有巨蛇弗栗多堵水的傳說。有關納加的神話中最有名的是攪乳海的故事。]

Next to the Terrace of Elephants, the Terrace of the Leper King was made of double-sided wall. On the inner wall there are abundant stone-carving nagas and demons popularily known in the Indian mythology.

[Excertps from Wikipedia: Stories involving the nāgas are still very much a part of contemporary cultural traditions in predominantly Hindu regions of Asia (India, Nepal, and the island of Bali). In India, nāgas are considered nature spirits and the protectors of springs, wells and rivers. They bring rain, and thus fertility, but are also thought to bring disasters such as floods and drought. There are many symbolic legends about the naga. One of the most famous mythology is the story of the Churning of Milk Ocean.]

參考來源出處:

1.《Ancient Angkor》作者:Michael Freeman 和Claude Jacques
2.《Siem Reap Angkor Visitors Guide》32nd edition by Canbypublications also see http://www.canbypublications.com/siemreap/history.htm

3.Video《History of Angkor Wat》by Peter Spry-Leverton
4. Angkor History and its kings: